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10 plantas tóxicas para los perros muy comunes

Posted on September 26, 2019 at 1:50 PM

Tanto en muchos jardines como en el campo se pueden encontrar muchas plantas tóxicas para los perros.


Con el buen tiempo nuestros clientes y sus mascotas pasan más tiempo fuera de casa y es más probable que los animales entren en contacto con estas plantas. En algunos casos se trata de plantas de interior que deben evitarse en las casas donde haya mascotas. Mantén alerta a sus propietarios para que sepan cuáles son.


1 .- Azalea (Rhododendron spp.)

Es una típica flor de jardín, muy común y de distribución mundial. Si un perro la ingiere le produce irritación de la boca y el tracto digestivo con vómitos y diarrea. En los casos más graves puede darse una bajada de la presión sanguínea y el animal puede entrar en coma y morir.


El tóxico que contiene se llama andromedotoxina y se encuentra preferentemente en las hojas y en el néctar.


Azalea. (Foto: Leonardo Sakaki – CC BY-SA 4.0)


2 .- Ciclamen (Cyclamen spp.)

En la naturaleza es una planta típica de la cuenca mediterránea y que se extiende hasta Europa Central.


Su tubérculo contiene ciclamina, que aunque no es tóxica para diversas especies animales (como el cerdo, de hecho recibe el nombre común de “pan de puerco” pero sí lo es para el perro o las personas. Produce alteraciones gastrointestinales y se han registrado envenenamientos con resultado de muerte.


Cyclamen persicum. (Foto: David tm – CC BY 3.0)


3 .- Narciso (Narcissus spp.)

Es un género vegetal originario de la cuenca mediterránea y Europa, de floración primaveral en la mayoría de sus especies. Hay gran cantidad de variedades cultivadas que pueden encontrarse en cualquier lugar del mundo.


Las sustancias que lo convierten en tóxico, los alcaloides licorina y galantamina, están en toda la planta pero especialmente en los bulbos. Su ingestión produce vómitos, diarrea, dolor abdominal, arritmias, convulsiones y un descenso marcado de la presión sanguínea.


Narciso. (Foto: Cillas – CC BY 3.0)


4 .- Dieffenbachia (Dieffenbachia spp.)

El género Dieffenbachia fue introducido en Europa en el siglo XIX desde las selvas tropicales de América. Es una planta de interior muy común en cualquier parte del mundo.


Esta planta contiene ácido oxálico y asparagina, que causan irritación grave en la boca y el tracto digestivo, náuseas o vómitos y diarreas. Además pueden producir inflamación de la boca y la lengua, con aparición de ampollas, tan intensa que impide tragar o incluso vocalizar.

Dieffenbachia bowmannii. (Foto: Louise Wolff – CC BY-SA 3.0)


5 ,- Tulipán (Tulipa spp.)

Las plantas del género Tulipa, cultivadas desde el siglo XVI, son otras de las que se pueden encontrar en casi cualquier jardín del mundo.


Toda la planta es tóxica pero de nuevo es el bulbo el que contiene más alcaloides y glocósidos, que son las sustancias que le confieren esa

.

Tulipán “Blackhorse”, un cultivar híbrido. (Foto: ks aka 9)


6 , -Amaryllis (Amaryllis spp.)

El género es originario del sur de África, pero como planta ornamental también es muy común.


Contiene alcaloides, entre ellos licorina y galantamina, que producen vómitos, depresión, diarrea, dolor abdominal, hipersalivación, anorexia

.

Amaryllis. (Foto: Acabashi – CC BY-SA 4.0)


7 .- Palma Sago (Cycas revoluta)

Recibe también los nombres de king sago, cica, palma de iglesia o falsa palmera. Es muy venenosa para los perros: produce diarreas y vómitos con sangre, debido a los trastornos de coagulación que causa, fallo hepático y muerte del animal intoxicado.


El tóxico que contiene se llama cicasina y está presente sobre todo en las semillas de la planta.


Palma Sago. (Foto: Veronidae – CC BY-SA 3.0)


8 .- Mataperros (Colchicum autumnale)

También se llama cólquico, narciso de otoño, quitameriendas, azafrán bastardo o azafrán silvestre. Se encuentra en Europa en praderas húmedas de montaña.


Contiene colchicina, un potente tóxico cuyo efecto consiste en inhibir la división celular.

 Mataperros. (Foto: Andreas Eichler – CC BY-SA 3.0)


9 ,- Adelfa (Nerium oleander)

Es originaria de la cuenca mediterránea y como especie invasora está presente en América y Australia. También es una planta ornamental habitual.


Contiene diversos heterósidos cardiotónicos, que son las sustancias que hacen tóxica esta planta. El más característico es la oleandrina, un glucósido con estructura esteroide que produce graves trastornos cardiacos por afectar a la bomba sodio/potasio de las células del corazón. Es muy venenosa.


Adelfa. (Foto: Georges Jansoone – CC BY 2.5)


10 .- Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe spp.)

Es un género con más de 100 especies, nativas del Viejo Mundo pero que también están presentes de forma silvestre en América.


Su toxicidad reside en los diferentes principios activos que contiene: alcaloides, triterpenos, flavonoides, bufadienoles o ácidos orgánicos. Si un perro la ingiere puede sufrir vómitos y diarreas y, en pocas ocasiones, arritmias.


Kalanchoe pumila. (Foto: Stan Shebs – CC BY-SA 3.0)


Fuente Ateuves.

Categories: Veterinaria en Perros

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